Amikacin an injectable antibiotic

Name of drugs:

Amikacin injection is used to treat serious bacterial infections in many different parts of the body.This medicine is for short term use only (7-10 day).   

Class of drugs:.                     

Amikacin belongs to a class of drugs known as aminoglycoside antibiotics.it works by stopping the growth of bacteria.

Used for:

Amikacin injection is used to treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria, such as meningitis (infection of the membrane that surrounds the brain and spinal cord), and infection of the blood, abdomen (stomach area), lungs,skin,bones, joints , and urinary tract.

Mechanism of action:      

Semi synthetic aminoglycoside,inhibits protein synthesis in susceptible bacteria by binding to ribosomal subunit.

Indications:

Amikacin is usually effective   against pseudomonas, klebsiella, enterobacter, serratia, proteus, and E.coli . documented infection of mycobacterial organisms susceptible to Amikacin.

Available as:               

Amikacin is available in following forms:

Injection:100mg/2ml vial and 500mg/2ml vial.

Administered as:         

General dosing- 15mg/kg/day divided IM/IV q8 -12hrs.

            Urinary tract infection:

             250 mg IV/IM q 12 hours.

             Extended interval dosing      (q24 hours):                                    

 First dose:15mg/kg IV based on lean body weight.

Pregnancy:

Amikacin is harmful to the fetus and should not be used during pregnancy unless there are no safer options.

Lactation:                    

Amikacin is poorly excreted into breast milk.newborn infant apparently absorbed small amounts of other aminoglycosides,but serum levels with typical three times daily dosage are far below those attained when treating newborn infection are unlikely.

Elderly:

Amikacin injection is usually used for serious bacterial infection for which other medicine may not work.These side effects may be more likely to occur in elderly patients and newborn infants.

Liver failure:

Amikacin as well as other aminoglycosides are not mentioned in the large case series of drugs induced liver disease and acute liver failure. 

Kidney failure:                       

In patients with normal renal function defined peak level of 5-10 mg/L and through level <2 mg/L are considered therapeutic for gentamicin,netilmicin, and tobramycin . The target peak and trough therapeutic level for Amikacin are 15-20 mg/L and <5 mg/L respectively.

Side effects:

  • nausea.
  • Vomiting.
  • Stomach upset or.                                       
  • Loss of appetite.  

Usual combination:

Combination of Amikacin plus ampicillin in 73% of 19 cases .and with Amikacin plus cephalothin in 55%of 20 case,

(P less than 0.05) giving a total improvement rate of 64%.

Available common brand:

  • Erkacin 500mg 2ml injection. 
  • Amikamac 500mg 2ml      injection.
  • Mikacin 500mg 2ml  injection.
  •  Omnikacin 500mg 2ml injection.

Sign of toxicity:            

Further toxicity may lead to retrograde degeneration of the 8th cranial nerve, vestibular toxicity may cause vertigo , nausea, dizziness, and loss of balance

In addition to the above Amikacin may exacerbate neuromuscular blockade, however this is common.

Antidote

Amikacin was not detected in the peritoneal dialysate, there is no antidote.

Usual drug dose:        

15mg/kg IV based on lean body weight.




<span class="has-inline-color has-luminous-vivid-orange-color">Dr Yatin Bhole MBBS DCh DNB</span>
Dr Yatin Bhole MBBS DCh DNB

This article was medically reveiwed by Dr Yatin Bhole who is practicing Pediatrician at Bhole Children Clinic, Ravet. This post is for general information and before applying it on yourself, you should meet your doctor or meet us in person.


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