BIOVAC A VACCINE: LIVE ATTENUATED HEPATITIS A VACCINE
Biovac A vaccine is used to prevent the Hepatitis A disease. It is vaccine marketed by Wockhardt Ltd. It is freeze-dried live attenuated Hepatitis A Vaccine.
Each 0.5 ml dose contains Hepatitis A live attenuated virus > 6.5 LgCCID50. Inactive contents are trehalose, mannitol, dextran-40, sorbitol, aminoacid salts
|Hepatitis A live attenuated virus.|
Made from working seed virus the H2 attenuated strain of HAV, cultured in Human Diploid cells.
|> 6.5 LgCCID50|
|Amino acid salt solution||11.73 mg|
|Sterile water for injection||qs|
How is Biovac A vaccine available?
Biovac A vaccine is available as Freez-dried live attenuated powder form.
It is available as 0.5 ml dose. I
t is available as vial containing freeze dried powder and a vial containing sterile water for injection.
It is packed in a opaque packet to protect from sunlight.
How is Biovac A vaccine stored?
Biovac A vaccine is stored at 2-8 degree Celsius.
The temperature range should be maintained with the help of cold chain.
The temperature range should be maintained at all levels of transport and storage.
The vaccine should not be frozen.
If the vaccine is frozen accidentally it should be discarded and not used for the injection.
How is Biovac A vaccine given?
Biovac A vaccine is given as injection on the antero lateral aspect of thigh in children with needle as subcutaneous route or can be given in deltoid region by subcutaneous route..
All the safe injection precautions should be followed while giving injection. The disposables should be discarded as per biomedical waste management protocols.
The vaccine that has passed expiry should be discarded as per biomedical waste management protocol rules.
For those who have bleeding disorder this vaccine can be administered subcutaneously and firm pressure is given after the vaccination.
The vaccination should be preferably planned after getting the dose of clotting factor in haemophilliacs.
At what age Biovac A vaccine is given?
Biovac A vaccine is given in routine immunization at age 13 months and second dose is given 6 months apart.
If someone has missed the dose it should be given.
For those above 10 years it is better to do serum HAV antibody test to see whether person has got natural asymptomatic infection before and got protected from the disease.
Those adolescents and adults from developed countries who are going to visit countries which are endemic for Hepatitis A should get vaccine before travel.
Currently manufacturer recommends single dose of the vaccine based on Chinese data but IAP suggests to give 2 doses at least 6 months apart.
How does Biovac A vaccine works?
Biovac A vaccine is active form of immunization but it is Freeze-dried active vaccine.
Biovac A vaccine contains live Hepatitis A virus in a form without disease causing capacity.
When this vaccine is injected to a host the virus actually infects the hosts and multiplies in the body of the host like actual disease causing virus, the immunity of the host recognizes the antigen on Hepatitis A virus.
The immunity is form against this virus and in the process the memory is also formed.
When the real infection occurs the immune response is boosted against the infection and protects the person against the disease itself.
Safety with other vaccine:
Biovac A vaccine is safe with most other medicine and no drug interactions were noted. The other vaccine or other drug should not be mixed in same syringe as this vaccine.
Like other active vaccines Biovac A vaccine is considered as not safe in pregnant and lactating woman, it should be avoided in this group of population.
This Vaccine should not be used in those with immunocompromized status and those with HIV AIDS stage 3 and stage 4 disease.
Concomitant administration of typhoid, tetanus and yellow fever vaccine is safe with Biovac A vaccine.
Concomitant administration of Biovac A and serum immunoglobulins does not alter the protective effect of Biovac A vaccine.
Other live vaccine like chickenpox vaccine and MMR vaccine is either given on same day or 28 days apart.
What are side effects of Biovac A vaccine?
Biovac A vaccine causes side effect that are generally milder and can be managed at home and does not need hospital admission:
- Fever is common side effect after the vaccination. It usually subsides in 1-3 days and can be managed very easily at home with medicine like paracetamol and sponging.
- Swelling and pain occurs at injection site may last for 1-3 days can be managed with paracetamol and local cold compression.
- Diarrhea and loss of appetite can occur after vaccination and can be managed by oral rehydrating solution.
- Nausea and vomiting may occur after the vaccination and it can be managed by oral syp ondansetron and oral rehydrating solution.
- Abdominal pain.
- Muscular pain and joint pain.
- Headache and fatigue may occur after vaccination. It usually reduces by its own or by oral medicine like paracetamol.
- Anaphylaxis and allergy is extremely rare side effect of the vaccine. Like other vaccines the vaccine should be administered at center where necessary personnel and drugs and equipments are available to manage if any reaction occurs.
To whom this vaccine should not be given?
There are few contraindication for this vaccination like any other vaccination:
- Do not give this vaccine who are severely immunocompromised like those on radiotherapy or chemotherapy.
- Do not give this vaccine to patients who have undergone transplant and are on immunosuppressant drugs.
- Do not give this vaccine to those who are on high dose steroids.
- Do not give this vaccine to those who are suffering from stage 3 and stage 4 HIV AIDS.
- Do not give this drugs to those who are suffering from malignancies like leukemia.
- Do not give this vaccine to those who are pregnant and lactating mothers.
- Do not give this vaccine below age 1 years.
- Do not give this vaccine to those who had previously got Hepatitis A disease.
- If patient is a known allergic to any of components of this vaccine, avoid this vaccine.
- Patient who had got anaphylaxis at the time of the previous vaccine should avoid same vaccine in the future.