IPOL: Inactivated polio vaccine (IPV)
IPOL vaccine is inactivated polio vaccine. It is given by injection unlike oral polio vaccine given orally. It contains 3 strains of polio virus in inactivated non-infectious form. The goal of this vaccine is reducing the VAPP after elimination of the polio with oral polio vaccine.
Each dose (0.5 mL) of trivalent vaccine is formulated to contain 40 D antigen units of Type 1, 8 D antigen units of Type 2, and 32 D antigen units of Type 3 poliovirus. For each lot of IPOL vaccine, D-antigen content is determined in vitro using the D-antigen ELISA assay. IPOL vaccine is produced from vaccine concentrates diluted with M-199 medium.
Also present are 0.5% of 2- 6 phenoxyethanol and a maximum of 0.02% of formaldehyde per dose as preservatives. Neomycin, streptomycin, and polymyxin B are used in vaccine production; and, although purification procedures eliminate measurable amounts, less than 5 ng neomycin, 200 ng streptomycin, and 25 ng polymyxin B per dose may still be present. The residual calf bovine serum albumin is less than 50 ng/dose in the final vaccine.
How is IPOL vaccine available?
IPOL vaccine is available in ready to inject formulation as slightly opalascent liquid form. It is available in pre-filled sterile syringe for injection. It is available as single dose pre filled syringe or as multi-dose vial of 5 ml.
How is IPOL vaccine stored?
IPOL vaccine is stored at 2-8 degree Celsius as recommended by manufacturer. Temperature range is maintained by the cold chain. The vaccine if accidentally frozen should be discarded and not used. The temperature range is maintained at all stages of storage and transport. If frozen accidentally or goes above the recommended temperature range should be discarded and not used. The vaccine which has passed expiry should be discarded and not used. It is discarded with all the necessary biomedical waste management protocol precautions for the given area.
How is IPOL vaccine given?
IPOL vaccine is given by injection on antero-lateral aspect of thigh in infants and small children. Those for adult and adolescents it can be given on deltoid region of the shoulder. All standard safe injection precautions need to be taken. After use the disposables and needles are to be discarded as per the guidelines for biomedical waste management protocols. The expired vaccine should be discarded as per BMW protocols so that it is not harmful to environment.
At what age IPOL vaccine is given?
IPOL Vaccine can be given as early as 6 weeks age. It should be given at 2,4,6 months and at 18 months and 5 years.
Usually primary series of vaccination given at age 6,10,14 weeks contains Infanrix Hexa, Pediarix or Kinrix vaccines that contain IPV components so need not to be given separately.
Adolescents and adults who haven’t got this vaccine or Oral polio vaccine in childhood should be given this vaccine as 0.5 ml doses 4 doses as recommended.
This vaccine is also indicated to those
- Who are going to travel and likely to get exposed to wild polio virus.
- Persons working in lab who are likely to come in contact with polio virus.
- Healthcare workers.
- Those who were shifted to USA and previously received oral polio virus vaccine.
In USA oral polio vaccine is no longer available and not used. Only IPV or combination vaccine is currently used.
How does IPOL vaccine works?
IPOL is inactivated vaccine. It contains inactivated polio virus. This is active form of immunization. When this vaccine is injected to an individual the antigens in it get inside the body. These antigens are recognized by the immune system of the individuals. The immune system develops mechanism to fight against the virus and if real infection takes place the immune response is rapidly ramped up and the disease is prevented. Given as per schedule it prevents polio disease as well as VAPP associated with oral polio virus vaccine.
Safety with other vaccines
This vaccine being inactivated virus vaccine is safe to be given with DTaP, HiB, Hepatitis B, rotavirus, Pneumonia and MMR vaccine.
One should not mix this vaccine with other vaccine or drug in same syringe. It be should be given at separate site with separate syringe.
What are side effects of IPOL vaccine?
Side effects of IPOL vaccine are usually mild and can be managed at home very easily.
- Fever can be there after the vaccination. It can be mild to moderate grade and can be managed at home by paracetamol and sponging. Fever may last for 1-3 days usually reduces with time.
- Local pain and redness swelling can come at injection site. It may last for 1-3 days. It can be easily managed with paracetamol and local cold fomentation.
- Headache can come in some patients after vaccination. Usually reduces in 1-3 days. This headache can be managed at home with paracetamol.
- Irritability and abnormal crying.
- Loss of appetite and vomiting.
- Muscular pain and fatigue seen after VaxiFlu-4 vaccination may last for the 1-3 days. It generally reduces by its own.
- Allergy and anaphylactic reaction: This is very rare side effect. The vaccine should not be given to those who are allergic to the component/s of the vaccine. The anaphylactic reaction should be managed very swiftly. The skilled person, necessary drugs and equipments should be available for the management.
What cautions are needed with this vaccine?
Yet safety data has not been established for use in pregnant women and lactating mothers. This vaccine should be used cautiously in this group and risk to benefit should be considered before use.
Like any other vaccine there is extremely rare but real risk of getting anaphylaxis reaction. The center at which vaccination is given should be equipped with skilled personnel and equipments available to manage the anaphylactic reactions.