Malta fever is also called as undulant fever or Brucellosis. It is common zoonotic disease that can spread from animals to humans.
|Name of disease||Brucellosis|
|Type of disease||Zoonotic disease spreads from animals to humans|
|Causative agent||Brucella abortus (cattle), |
Brucella melitensis (goat/sheep),
Brucella suis (swine)
Brucella canis (dog)
These 4 species infection other animals.
They are most common cause of undulant fever or malta fever in humans.
|Causative agent||small, aerobic|
Gram-negative coccobacillary bacteria
|First infects||Inoculation through cuts or abrasions in the skin|
Inoculation of the conjunctival sac of
Inhalation of infectious aerosols
Ingestion of contaminated meat or dairy products
|Most commonly spreads||Consumption of unpasteurised dairy products and milk|
|Symptoms||Symptoms are vague and difficult to diagnosis of Malta fever or Undulant fever.|
Visit to rural areas and presence of cattle, consumption of unpasteurized milk provides a clue for diagnosis.
Triad of Fever, arthralgia/arthritis, and hepatosplenomegaly.
Cough, and pharyngitis
In children symptoms are vangue and may include refusal to eat, lassitude, refusal to bear weight, and failure to thrive
|Diagnosis||Routine tests are not helpful to diagnose malta fever or undulant fever.|
Diagnosis is difficult as symptoms and signs are vague.
Thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, anemia, or pancytopenia may be found on CBC
Blood culture and bone marrow culture may detect the organism but may take 4 weeks for the results.
Automated culture and lysis centrifuge may reduce this time to less than 5 days.
Serum aglutination tests may detect IgM or IgG and help in diagnosis.
|Treatment||Anti-microbial agents Doxycyclin and aminoglycoside combination is effective in treatment and preventing relapses.|