Mencevax: Meningitis quadrivalent ACWY polysaccharide vaccine

Mencevax: Menongococcal polysaccharide vaccine (MPSV 4)

Mencevax vaccine is used to prevent the Meningococcal Meningitis disease. It is vaccine by Sanofi. It is Killed Meningococcal polysaccharide quadrivalent vaccine.

Mencevax Menongococcal Meningitis Vaccine is a vaccine indicated for active immunization to prevent invasive meningococcal disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, C, Y, and W-135. MENVEO is approved for use in persons above age 2 years.

This vaccine does not prevent N. meningitidis serogroup B infections.

This vaccine is available in 0.5 ml dosages..

How is Mencevax Meningococcal Meningitis vaccine available?

This vaccine is available as 2 vials.

One vial contains lyophilized powder that contains polysaccharides of Meningococcus antigen A, C, Y, W-135.

Other vial contains the sterile diluent for the reconstitution.

It is generally provided in opaque box to protect the contents from the light. Single dose or polydose package may be available in the market.

How to store this vaccine?

Mencevax Menongococcal Meningitis Vaccine is stored at 2-8 degree Celsius.

The temperature range should be maintained with the help of cold chain.

The temperature range should be maintained at all levels of transport and storage.

The vaccine should not be frozen. If the vaccine is frozen accidentally it should be discarded and not used for the injection.

How is Mencevax Meningococcal Meningitis vaccine given?

Mencevax Menongococcal Meningitis Vaccine is reconstituted, lyophilized powder in one vial is mixed with the sterile diluent.

Sterile diluent using a sterile syringe is pushed into the lyophilized powder. It is gently agitated and sucked back into the syringe.

Menongococcal Meningitis Vaccine is given as injection on the antero lateral aspect of thigh in children with needle as subcutaneous route.

All the safe injection precautions should be followed while giving injection. The disposables should be discarded as per biomedical waste management protocols.

The vaccine that has passed expiry should be discarded as per biomedical waste management protocol rules.

At what age Mencevax Meningococcal Meningitis vaccine is given?

Primary Immunization

  • This vaccine is used only if meningococcal conjugate vaccine is not available or cannot be used.
  • Being a polysaccharide vaccine it is ineffective in forming antibody response in children below 2 years.
  • This vaccine can be used as single dose above age 2 years.

Boosters

  • Some patients may need to take boosters periodically as they may be high risk of getting meningococcal disease.

Indications

The vaccine may be used for:

  1. Individuals who are close contacts of patients with disease caused by meningococci of serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y.
  2. Travellers to countries where the disease is endemic or highly epidemic.
  3. Controlling epidemics of infection caused by serogroup A, C, W-135 and Y meningococci in confined communities.
  4. Patients with inherited defects of properdin or complement, or functional or anatomical asplenia.

How does this vaccine works?

Mencevax Menongococcal Meningitis Vaccine is a killed vaccine.

It is used to prevent the infection and inflammation caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, C, Y, and W-135.

This Neisseria meningitidis is also called as meningococcus because it infects the meninges the thin covering of the brain and causes disease meningitis which is life threatening in many cases even after treatment.

This vaccination is active form of immunization and when it is injected in adequate doses to someone the immunity of the host recognizes the antigens in this vaccine as foreign antigens and form immune response against these antigens.

When the real infection occurs the body fights the infection more vigorously and the disease is prevented. Thus this is active form of immunization.

Safety with other vaccine:

Mencevax Menongococcal Meningitis Vaccine is safe with most other medicine and no drug interactions were noted. The other vaccine or other drug should not be mixed in same syringe as this vaccine.

Like other inactivated vaccines Mencevax Menongococcal Meningitis Vaccine is yet not known to be safe in pregnant and lactating woman, but the risk benefit ratio should be evaluated by the caregiver.

This vaccine is also safe when given with diphtheria, pertussis, HiB and pneumococcal vaccines.

What are the side effects of Mencevax vaccine?

Mencevax Menongococcal Meningitis Vaccine causes side effect that are generally milder and can be managed at home and does not need hospital admission:

  • Fever is common side effect after the vaccination. It usually subsides in 1-3 days and can be managed very easily at home with medicine like paracetamol and sponging.
  • Swelling and pain occurs at injection site may last for 1-3 days can be managed with paracetamol and local cold compression.
  • Diarhea and loss of appetite can occur after vaccination and can be managed by oral rehydrating solution.
  • Nausea and vomiting may occur after the vaccination and it can be managed by oral syp ondansetron and oral rehydrating solution.
  • Muscular pain and joint pain.
  • Headache and fatigue.
  • Anaphylaxis and allergy is extremely rare side effect of the vaccine. Like other vaccines the vaccine should be administered at center where necessary personnel and drugs and equipments are available to manage if any reaction occurs.

To whom this vaccine should not be given?

There are few contraindications of this vaccine as follows:

  • Those who are allergic to any of its components
  • Those who had got allergy and anaphylactic reaction at the previous dose of this vaccine.
  • Those who are less than 2 years old.
  • It should be used cautiously in pregnant and lactating women as yet safety data is not known for this group.
  • There are very rare chances of severe allergic and anaphylactic reaction after this injection. The center at which this vaccine is given should be equipped with necessary medicines and skills to manage the anaphylactic shock.


<span class="has-inline-color has-luminous-vivid-orange-color">Dr Yatin Bhole MBBS DCh DNB</span>
Dr Yatin Bhole MBBS DCh DNB

This article was written by Dr Yatin Bhole who is practicing Pediatrician at Bhole Children Clinic, Ravet. This post is for general information and before applying it on yourself, you should meet your doctor or meet us in person.



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