Monkey fever or Kyasanur Forest Disease

Monkey fever is also called Kysanur forest disease as initially it was noted in Kyasanur forest of Karnataka, India. 

This disease comes in a group of diseases classified as Tick borne viral encephalitis. In complicated disease symptoms of encephalitis like loss of consciouness, headache, seizures may occur. It may cause coma and death even after treatment.

Other characteristic of this viral fever is bleeding and hemorrhage in different organs especially in gastrointestinal tract of the patients. It may lead to shock and death due to excessive bleeding.

Name of diseaseMonkey fever or Kyasanur forest disease
Causative agentVirus: Kyasanur forest disease virus (KFDV)
VactorTicks  Haemaphysalis spinigera
ReservoirsRodents and cattle
AmplifiersMonkeys
Regions where cases of monkey fever are reportedForest areas of:
Karnataka
Kutch and Saurashtra of Gujrat state
Kingaon and Parbatpur of West Bengal
Andaman and Nicobar
Fatality rate3-10 percent
High-risk groupSome people have an increased risk of getting Money fever.
These groups of people include:
Those who go to forests.
Hunters.
Tribal people working or staying in the forest
Dry leaf gatherers
Symptoms and signHigh fever
Chills
Muscles and limb pain
Vomiting 
Loose motions
Blood in vomit and stool
Bleeding
Frontal headache
Mental changes
Seizures
Loss of consciousness
FindingsHigh-grade fever with rigors
Vomiting
Loss of appetite
Signs of dehydration
Low blood pressure
Signs of encephalitis
DiagnosisSuspected clinical followed by blood examination.
Low white blood cells, RBC, and platelet counts
RT-PCR detects the presence of the virus
ELISA test to detect IgG and IgM antibodies against the virus
To monitor and treat patient further tests like liver function tests, kidney function tests, serum electrolyte examination may be needed
USG abdomen, CT or MRI brain may be needed for management
CSF and urine examination may be needed to treat the patient
TreatmentCurrently no specific treatment available for Monkey fever or Kyasanur forest disease
Symptomatic treatment is the mainstay of the therapy.
Anti-pyretic medicine paracetamol is given for fever.
Anti-emetic medicine like ondansetron may be given to control vomiting.
Hydration is maintained by oral and IV fluids.
Patients with low blood pressure, bleeding, those not able to eat at home and those who are sick need hospitalization.
Serious patients are given live supportive treatment in ICU.
PreventionCan be prevented by vaccination and control of tick insects.
Vaccine for tick-borne viral encephalitis can be used in those who have the risk of getting the disease.
Controlling insect vectors is another strategy to prevent the spread of the virus to humans.
Wearing protective clothing while going to forest areas may help
Monkey fever



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