Rubella(German measles)What is Rubella (German measles)?
Rubella (Latin literally means “little red”) is a highly contagious disease characterized by red rash though many times not so typical and detectable. It was very common in pre-immunization era still very common in countries where vaccination coverage is low.
Causative agent of Rubella (German measles)?
Rubella virus belongs to genus Rubivirus, Family of Togaviridae. It is single stranded RNA virus. It has icosahedral shaped capsid.
How does it spread?
Since it is contagious disease it spread as airborne infection and through saliva, kissing, from mother to fetus in womb. The person who is asymptomatic or in incubation period may spread it through air while coughing, sneezing, talking and laughing.
How much is incubation period for Rubella?
14-21 days after exposure. Incubation period is period between exposure to infectious agent and manifestation of symptomatic disease.
What are symptoms of Rubella (German measles)?
- Some times it heals without symptoms.
- Prodrome of non specific symptom may precede the rash may include fever, chills, malaise, headache, bodyache, nausea, loss of appetite.
- eye pain on upwards and lateral gaze, conjunctivitis.
- lynph node enlargement.
- Pin point or larger petechiae on soft palate.
- Rubella may be complicated by arthralgia, arthritis, and thrombocytopenic purpura.
- Rarely rubella encephalitis may occur in children.
What are complications of Rubella (German Measles)?
- Thrombocytopenic purpura
- Congenital Rubella
What is Congenital Rubella Syndrome?
If a pregnant woman gets infected during pregnancy baby may get affected with teratogenic effect and have birth defects. This effect is seen when mother is infected in first 3-6 months of pregnancy. Essentially seen in unvaccinated women. Congenital rubella syndrome manifest with:
- Intra uterine grvaccinatedowth retardation
- Cataract, Retinopathy, Glaucoma, microphthalmia in newborn
- Hearing deficit
- Congenital heart disease like Pulmonary artery stenosis and Patent Ductus Arteriosus.
- intellectual deficit
- Hepatomegaly-enlarged liver
- low birth weight
Increased chances of following conditions after birth
- Developmental delay
- Learning disabilities
- Growth failure
- Diabetes mallitus
Treatment of Congenital Rubella Syndrome?
Many of birth defects caused by congenital rubella syndrome are irreversible. Treatment depends upon the manifestations and its severity. Long term in fact life long disability may remain.
How to prevent Rubella (German measles)?
It is a vaccine preventable disease. Rubella vaccine is given world wide in many countries currently recommended under universal immunization schedule.
- It is a live vaccine
- Can be given 6 months and above age
- Can be single rubella vaccine or a combination of measles-rubella or measles-mumps-rubella
- Given subcut or deep im.
- For more details you can visit us at here
Dr Yatin Bhole MBBS DCh DNB
Bhole Children Clinic vaccination center
Pediatrician in Ravet
We are at convenient location from Punawale, Kiwale, Akurdi.