TT injection: Tetanus toxoid vaccine is given to prevent Tetanus disease. Tetanus is caused by the Clostridium tetany bacterium that dwells in soil and surfaces produces spores. These spores when get deposited in wound they germinate in wound to produce bacterium and the bacterium Clostridium tetany produces toxin tetanus which causes disease tetanus. Left untreated tetanus is deadly in few weeks time. It produces titanic contractions of the body muscles.
Tetanus injection as it is commonly called is tetanus vaccine that contains tetanus toxoid. Toxoid is inactivated toxin of the Clostridium tetany.
How is TT injection: Tetanus toxoid vaccine available?
TT injection: Tetanus toxoid vaccine is available as ready to inject liquid form. It is available in vial with 0.5 ml single dose. It looks cloudy, the constituents become homogenous when agitated. It is packed in an opaque packet to protect it from light. The sterile single use disposable needle for injection is use.
How is the TT injection: Tetanus toxoid vaccine stored?
TT injection: Tetanus toxoid vaccine is stored at 2-8 degree Celsius. The temperature is maintained with the help of cold chain. The temperature range should be maintained at all stages of the storage and transportation. The vaccine if frozen accidentally frozen should be discarded and should not be used. The vaccine if passed beyond expiry date should not be used and discarded.
How is TT injection: Tetanus toxoid vaccine given?
TT injection: Tetanus toxoid vaccine is given on anterolateral aspect of thigh intramuscular injection in small infants and children. For adults it is given on shoulder in deltoid muscle. All the safe injection precautions should be utilized while giving injection. It should not be given subcut or intravenous as the efficacy by these routes is unknown. Those with bleeding tendency may get it subcut the clinical decision by pediatrician is needed.
At what age TT injection: Tetanus toxoid vaccine is given?
TT injection: Tetanus toxoid vaccine is given at age 6, 10, 14 weeks and booster at 18 months and 5 and 10 years then every 5 years.
Now a days TT injection is given as combination vaccine DTaP or Tdap as age appropriate.
This injection is to be given after injury to prevent tetanus if not taken in last 5 years.
In pregnancy 2 doses are given 1 month apart and if taken within last 3 years only single dose is needed.
What if some has missed dose of TT injection: Tetanus toxoid vaccine?
If someone has missed the dose of TT injection: Tetanus toxoid vaccine should get it earliest as possible. Those who have not taken even single dose should take it in 3 dose schedule as 0, 1 month and 2-3 months. Those who have not received it in last 5 years should take TT injection 2 doses 1 month apart and then single dose every 5 years.
How does TT injection: Tetanus toxoid vaccine work?
TT injection: Tetanus toxoid vaccine contains tetanus toxoid antigen Clostridium tetany. When this vaccine is injected to the host all these antigens are entered into the body. Inside the host these antigens are recognized by the immune system of the host. The immune mechanism to fight against these antigens is developed. When real infection occurs the immune response is rapidly ramped up and the disease is prevented. This is active form of immunization that is host himself/herself develops the immunity by its own mechanism after vaccination. The boosters are needed to maintain the long term immunity as after many years the immunity may wane. Booster is needed every 5 years.
Safety of TT injection: Tetanus toxoid vaccine with other drugs:
As this is killed vaccine it is safe to give the vaccine with most of the other medicines and other vaccine. It is safe if given with other vaccines like MMR, measles and pneumococcal vaccines.
The vaccine if given with other vaccines should not be mixed in same syringe it should be given separately and at separate site.
The vaccine is safe for immunocompromised patients and those with HIV AIDS patients.
The safety of vaccine is established in pregnancy and lactating mothers.
What are side effects after TT injection: Tetanus toxoid vaccine?
TT injection: Tetanus toxoid vaccine is tetanus toxoid antigen of Clostridium tetrany toxin.
· Fever may come after the vaccination it may last for 3 days and usually mild to moderate grade. It can be easily controlled with paracetamol oral medicine and sponging. It can be managed at home.
· Injection site pain and swelling may occur after vaccination. It is usually less. This pain can be managed with paracetamol and cold compression at injection site.
· Irritability may come after vaccination may last for 1-3 days usually subsides by its own.
· Headache may occur after vaccination this side effect can be easily managed with paracetamol and usually subsides by its own.
· If patient is allergic to any component anaphylaxis reaction may occur. This is extremely rare side effect but can be life threatening. The facility at which vaccination is given should be equipped with treatment to manage anaphylaxis reaction.
To whom TT injection: Tetanus toxoid vaccine should not be given?
TT injection: Tetanus toxoid vaccine should not be given to someone if known allergic to any of its components.
The contraindications Of injection are very rare, advice of pediatrician should be considered before any conclusion.
Those with convulsion in past is not a contraindication for this vaccination.
Those with bleeding disorder like haemophilia should plan this vaccine after getting the dose of factor administered. Subcut route should be considered in such patients and clinical discretion of the treating pediatrician is needed.