Vaxchora vaccine: Cholera live oral vaccine
Vaxchora vaccine oral Cholera vaccine (live attenuated) is a live vaccine containing Vibreo cholera O1 strain.
In developing countries due to poor sanitation and hygiene facilities combined with no access to safe drinking water, the population is exposed to huge risk of getting water borne diseases like Cholera and travelers diarrhea caused by Entero toxigenic E. coli diarrhea. This is important cause of death in endemic regions of the world especially in children aged less than 5 years old. Oral cholera vaccine can prevent 56-65 percent incidences of cholera cases.
The travelers visiting to endemic regions may suffer diarrhea due to above causes which can be dangerous and it is better to prevent them.
How is Vaxchora vaccine available?
Vaxchora vaccine oral Cholera vaccine (live attenuated) is available as a suspension and effervescent granules for oral suspension. The vaccine is a whitish suspension supplied in a lachet. The effervescent granules are supplied in a sachet
How is Vaxchora vaccine stored?
Recommended range to store Vaxchora vaccine by manufacturer is 2-8 degree Celsius. It can be stored at 2-8 degree Celsius during its shelf life.. The temperature range should be maintained at all stages of the transport and storage. It should be kept in paper box which comes with the vaccine. The vaccine should be thawed before use. If stored as per instructions provided on leaflet with vaccine the shelf life is 1 years. The expired vaccine should not be used. The expired vaccine is to be discarded with all standard precaution suggested in biomedical waste management protocols.
How is Vaxchora vaccine given?
· Vaxchora vaccine oral Cholera vaccine (live attenuated) is given orally.
· To prepare buffer solution dissolve the effervescent granules in a glass of cool purified water bottle (approx. 100 ml). Do not use any other liquid or tap water.
· Shake the vaccine bottle (1 bottle = 1 dose).
· Add the vaccine to the buffer solution. Mix well and drink the mixture. Reconstitute and drink the vaccine within 15 min after taking out from cold temperature range. Avoid food and drink starting 1 hour before until 1 hour after the vaccination
How dose Vaxchora vaccine oral Cholera vaccine work?
Vaxchora vaccine oral Cholera vaccine is active form of immunization. When given orally it goes to intestine of the individual. It is recognized by the host’s immune system. The immune response is mounted against the bacteria. When the real infection occurs the immunity fights the infection vigorously and the Cholera disease is prevented.
The protection starts 10 days after dose efficacy 80 percent and after 3 months efficacy 70 percent.
At what age Vaxchora vaccine oral Cholera vaccine is given?
Vaxchora oral vaccine is given at least 10 days before visiting to endemic country.
It can be safely given at age 18-64 years.
Only single dose is needed to be given 10 days before starting travel.
What are side effects of Vaxchora vaccine oral Cholera vaccine?
Side effects of Vaxchora vaccine oral Cholera vaccine (live attenuated) are usually milder when compared to the disease caused by the V. Cholerae. Benefits outweigh the harm that’s why it is used.
· Decreased appetite can be observed after the vaccination. This side effect also subsides with its own.
· Vomiting is known to occur in some patients after the vaccination. It can be managed at home with increasing feeding frequency to maintain hydration status and also some patients may need antiemetic drops like domstal or ondansetron.
· Diarrhea is known side effect of the vaccine and is usually self limiting. It can be managed at home by increasing the frequency of the feeding.
· Headache is known side effect after this vaccination.
· Other mild side effects are stomach pain, joint pain, feeling of unwell.
· Allergic reaction may occasionally come and needs immediate medical attention.
What precautions are needed with Vaxchora oral cholera vaccine?
It cannot provide protection to strains other than Vibrio Cholarae O1.
Even after taking this vaccine food and hand hygiene is suggested as this vaccine just reduces chances of getting disease.
The vaccine bacteria may spread from those who have taken vaccine to his/her close contact. Effect of this phenomenon on immune-suppressed contact of those taking vaccine is yet not known.
Vaxchora vaccine is not indicated those already staying in endemic area. The effect of vaccine in those who were already exposed to bacteria is not yet known.
Vaxchora vaccine does not prevent diarrhea caused by other infections and entero-toxigenic traveler’s diarrhea.
To whom Vaxchora vaccine should not be given?
It should not be given to a person who is allergic to any of its components.
It should not be given to those who are pregnant and lactating mothers as safety data uet not established.
It should not be given to those who are immunocompromised or on medicines causing immune-suppression.
It should not be given to those who were on antibiotics in last 14 days.
It should be postponed in those who are suffering from acute gastro-intestinal tract illnesses.