Vivaxim: Typhoid and Hepatitis A inactivated vaccine
|Salmonella typhi Vi polysaccharide (Ty 2 strain)||25 mcg|
|Hepatitis A virus antigen||160 ELISA units|
|Salmonella typhi Vi polysaccharide typhoid vaccine components|
|Phosphate buffer solution containing:|
|Sodium chloride||4.150 mg|
|Sodium phosphate – dibasic dihydrate||0.065 mg|
|Sodium phosphate – monobasic||0.023 mg|
|Water for injections||up to 0.5 ml|
|Inactivated hepatitis A virus vaccine components|
|Aluminium hydroxide (quantity expressed as aluminium)||0.3 mg|
|Phenoxyethanol (preservative)||0.5 mcl|
|Formaldehyde (preservative)||12.5 mcg|
|Medium 199 (Hanks)||Up to 0.5 ml|
|Neomycin (≤ 2.5 µg) and Bovine serum albumin (< 10 Nanograms) may be present as residual traces.|
How is Vivaxim vaccine available?
Vivaxim vaccine is available as injection liquid form. It is available as pre filled syringe. It is available as dual chamber syringe. The product need to be mixed just before injection. It is easy with dual chamber syringe also less chances of contamination ith dual chamber syringe.
How is Vivaxim vaccine stored?
Vivaxim vaccine is stored at 2-8 degree Celsius. The temperature range should be maintained with the help of cold chain. The temperature range should be maintained at all levels of transport and storage. The vaccine should not be frozen. If the vaccine is frozen accidentally it should be discarded and not used for the injection. The vaccine that as not maintained in temperature range or that has passed expiry should be discarded and not used. It should be discarded with all biomedical waste management protocol precautions.
How is Vivaxim vaccine given?
Vivaxim vaccine is given as injection on the shoulder in deltoid muscle intramuscular route. All the safe injection precautions should be followed while giving injection. The disposables should be discarded as per biomedical waste management protocols.
For those who have bleeding disorder this vaccine can be administered subcutaneously and firm pressure is given after the vaccination. The vaccination should be preferably planned after getting the dose of clotting factor in haemophilliacs.
At what age Vivaxim vaccine is given?
- Vivaxim vaccine is given in patients who are above 16 years of age and those who are going to visit the endemic area for typhoid and Hepatitis A disease.
- It should be given at least 8 days before the travel.
- Single dose may not provide entire protection for travelers and second dose may be given after 6 months to 36 months after the first dose of this vaccine.
- It has been demonstrated that HAV antibodies persist for many years (at least 10 years) after the booster.
- Revaccination against typhoid fever should be carried out with a single dose of purified Vi polysaccharide typhoid vaccine every 3 years in subjects who remain at risk.
How does this vaccine work?
Vivaxim vaccine is active form of immunization but it is inactivated vaccine. This vaccine contains HAV virus antigen in inactivated form. This vaccine also contains Salmonella typhi polysaccharide antigens. When this vaccine is injected to a host the immunity of the host recognizes the antigens Hepatitis A virus and Salmonella typhi Ty 2 strain polysaccharides. The immunity is formed against this virus and in the process the memory is also formed. When the real infection occurs the immune response is boosted against the infection and protects the person against the disease itself.
Safety with other vaccine:
Vivaxim vaccine is safe with most other medicine and no drug interactions were noted. The other vaccine or other drug should not be mixed in same syringe as this vaccine.
Concomitant administration Monovalent vaccines yellow fever vaccine is safe with This vaccine.
What are side effects of Vivaxim vaccine?
This vaccine causes side effect that are generally milder and can be managed at home and does not need hospital admission:
- Fever is common side effect after the vaccination. It usually subsides in 1-3 days and can be managed very easily at home with medicine like paracetamol and sponging.
- Swelling and pain occurs at injection site may last for 1-3 days can be managed with paracetamol and local cold compression.
- Diarhea and loss of appetite can occur after vaccination and can be managed by oral rehydrating solution.
- Nausea and vomiting may occur after the vaccination and it can be managed by oral syp ondansetron and oral rehydrating solution.
- Abdominal pain.
- Muscular pain and joint pain.
- Headache and fatigue.
- Anaphylaxis and allergy is extremely rare side effect of the vaccine. Like other vaccines the vaccine should be administered at center where necessary personnel and drugs and equipments are available to manage if any reaction occurs.
To whom this vaccine should not be given?
This vaccine has fewer contraindications. This vaccine should not be given to:
- People who are allergic to any of its components.
- People who are known allergic to neomycin.
- People who had got allergic/anaphylactic reaction at the time of the previous dose.
- Yet safety data in pregnancy and lactation has not been established so, it should not be used in this age group.
- Below 16 years yet the safety and efficacy not been established.