Rabivax S vaccine ( Rabies vaccine, human IP)
Rabivax S is Rabies vaccine used from humans after dog bite to prevent deadly rabies disease. This vaccine is produced by Serum Institute of India pvt ltd. Rabies is deadly disease and it is spread from animals to humans when infected animals bite humans. There is no cure for this disease. Death is almost certain when someone suffers from the rabies disease. Rabies vaccination is the only thing that can prevent Rabies disease. The animal can be asymptomatic at the time of the bite but may be carrying virus in the saliva. It can also spread the virus by scratch also.
This vaccine contains purified Rabies antigen (Rabies virus Pitman-Moore strain 3218-VERO adapted and grown on vero cells, inactivated using beta-propiolactone and sterile water for injection.
In which form Rabivax S vaccine (Human IP) is available?
The vaccine is available in form of freeze dried powder and sterile water for injection. The sterile water for injection is available in pre filled syringe. The powder freeze dried is available in separate vial. It is packed in opaque box to protect it from light.
How is Rabivax S vaccine (Human IP) stored?
Rabivax S vaccine is stored at temperature range 2 – 8 degree Celsius as recommended by manufacturer. The temperature range is maintained at all stages of transport and storage using cold chain. The temperature range should be strictly maintained. If frozen accidentally should not be used.
How to reconstitute Rabivax S vaccine (Human IP)?
Sterile water available with the freeze dried powder is first mixed with freeze dried powder. It is agitated gently for some time. Then the constituents are mixed evenly. When the mixture is made even and looks transparent should be sucked back in to the syringe. The reconstituted mixture should be used as soon as possible after reconstitution to retain the potency of the vaccine.
How is Rabivax S vaccine (Human IP) given?
Rabivax S vaccine (Human IP) is given by injection. In small children it is given on thigh anterolateral aspect. In adolescents and adult it can be given in the deltoid muscle. The injection can be given by intradermal route. Intradermal route needs less dose and efficacy almost similar to intramuscular route. All the safety injection precautions are to be taken while injection. The disposables are discarded as per the biomedical waste management protocols. The expired vaccine should not be used and discarded as per biomedical waste management protocol to protect the environment.
What is schedule for Rabivax S vaccine (Human IP)?
For post exposure prophylaxis following schedule is recommended for the injection. The need of Rabieshield vaccine together depends upon the category of bite wound.
|Category||Type of contact||Type of exposure||Recommended post exposure prophylaxis|
|I||Touching or feeding of animalsLicks on intact skin||None||None if reliable case history is available.|
|II||Nibbling on uncovered skinMinor scratches or abrasion without bleeding||Minor||Wound management and antirabies vaccine.|
|II||Single or multiple trans-dermal bites or scratches, licks on brocken skinContamination of the mucous membrane with saliva.||Severe||Wound management + Antirabies immunoglobulin + Antirabies vaccine|
- For intradermal route, four doses should be administered 2 injections of 0.1 ml at 2 different sites as per the updated thai red cross regimen (2-2-2-0-2) as given above.
- In those previously immunized by complete vaccination schedule (pre or post exposure prophylaxis) 2 doses of 1ml given by intramuscular route or 2 doses of 0.1 ml by intradermal route on day 0 and 3 are recommended.
- In cases of category 3 exposures and of category 2 exposure in immunodeficient patients, human rabies immunoglobulin or equine rabies immunoglobulin should be given with Rabivax S vaccine.
- If rabies immunoglobulin is not available at the time of first vaccination, it must be administered no later than 7 days after the first vaccination since later administered would result in interference with immune response of the vaccine
|Route||Dose||Number of doses||Schedule|
|Intramuscular||1 ml||5||Day 0, 3, 7, 14 and 28|
|Intradermal||0.1 ml+0.1 ml||4||Day 0, 3, 7 and 28|
For Pre exposure prophylaxis following schedule is used for the injection.
- Periodic booster injectios are recommended as an extra precaution only for people whose occupation puts them at continual or frequent risk of exposure.
- For people who are potentially at risk of laboratory exposure to high concentrations of live rabies virus, antibody testing should be done every 6 monthly.
- Those professionals who are not continual risk of exposure through their activities, should have serological monitoring every 2 years. Vaccine induced immunity persists in most cases for years, a booster should be administered if rabies virus neutralizing antibody titres fall to < 0.5 IU/ml.
|Route||Dose||Number of doses||Schedule|
|Intramuscular||1 ml||3||Day 0,7, 21 or 28|
|Intradermal||0.1 ml||3||Day 0,7, and 21 or 28|
What are side effects of Rabivax S vaccine?
Rabivax S vaccine prevents deadly rabies disease. The side effects are usually milder and usually self resolving and can be managed at home.
- Injection site pain.
- Abdominal pain.
- Like every other vaccine anaphylaxis allergic reaction can occur after this vaccine though extremely rare I should be managed swiftly. The necessary skilled personnel, drugs and equipment should be available at the time of the vaccination.
What are warning and precaution while taking Rabivax S vaccine?
- Corticosteroids, chloroquine and other immunosuppressive treatments can interfere with the immune response of vaccine and lead to failure of the vaccination.
- Immunoglobulins must be administered at a different site from that of the vaccine.
- The recommended dose of the immunoglobulin should not be exceeded nor should be repeated doses of the same be administered once the vaccination course has been started since a higher dose could interfere with the immune response to rabies vaccine.