ActHIB vaccine is a mono-valent vaccine. It is from brand Sanifi Pasteur and widely available in many countries. Mono means one. So it protects from one diseases. It is acellular pertussis based vaccine.
It contains Haemophilus influenzae type B polysaccharide conjugated to tetanus toxoid.
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About ActHIB vaccine:
As we discussed above this is a mono-valent vaccine. It protects from one diseases namely haemophilus influenzae type B
|Haemophilus influezae type B polysaccharide
|Conjugated to Tetanus toxoid carrier protein
Above are active ingredients of ActHIB Vaccine. It contains Haemophilus influenzae type B polysaccharide 10 mcg that is in conjugated form to tetanus toxoid carrier protein 24 mcg.
How is ActHIB vaccine available?
ActHIB vaccine is available as injection form.
It is available as lyophilized powder containing antigen in once vial and sterile diluent in another vial.
At what age to get ActHIB vaccine?
ActHIB is a conjugated HiB vaccine.
Give it at age 2, 4 6 months and a booster at 18 months age.
Give it at age 6,10,14 weeks and booster at 18 months of age as indicated in some coyuuntries.
This is monovalent vaccine.
Prefer combination vaccine over this vaccine as they protect from many diseases in one prick.
How to give ActHIB?
Give ActHIB as injection.
Mix the diluent with the sterile powder just before injection.
Agitate the mixture gently.
Follow all the safety injection precautions.
Discard the disposable as required by local bio-medical waste management protocols.
Give it on anterolateral aspect of thigh. It is safe to use this vaccine in children below 7 years of age.
How to store ActHIB vaccine?
Store ActHIB at 2-8 degree Celsius.
Maintain the temperature at all stages of transport and storage till it reaches to patient from the production facility.
Discard the vaccine id accidentally frozen or goes out of temperature range due to some reason.
How Does ActHIB vaccine works?
As it is a Killed purified vaccine and contains antigens for H. influenzae type b polysaccharide.
Purified antigen is a combined or conjugated with the tetanus toxoid protein. Conjugated polysaccharide vaccine is very efficient in generating immunity against HiB type B and also generates memory.
Inject this vaccine to the host and immune system recognizes it. Immunity produces immune response against it. This process also generates memory immunity.
So when real infection occurs, immunity recognizes and fights back. Thus vaccine prevents disease. This is active form of immunization.
Safety of vaccine with other vaccines:
This vaccine is safe and can be given with other vaccines like diphtheria, tetanus, hepatitis B, pertussis, rotavirus and pneumoccocal vaccines and MMR.
What are side effects of ActHIB vaccine?
· Local swelling and pain, fever are the main side effects of the this vaccine.
These side effects are generally mild and can be managed at home with or without medications.
Fever more than 38 degrees Celsius may be noted and can come till 3-4 days after injection. It is generally reduced with paracetamol.
Local swelling and pain is reduced with oral peracetamol and cold compression at the site of the injection.
Irritability and crying can occur after the injection and generally lasts only for few hours.
Loss of appetite may occur but usually subsides its own in some days.
Restlessness may be seen after vaccination and usually decreases with time in some days.
Gastrointestinal side effects like diarrhea and vomiting may occur can be manage at home are usually mild and decreases by its own.
Some children may show signs of increased drowsiness and sleepiness after vaccination usually comes to normal in 2-3 days.
Other major and potentially life threatening side effects are extremely rare.
Be ready to handle anaphylactic reaction as like any other vaccine this vaccine can give you anaphylaxis.
What are benefits of ActHIB vaccine?
- As it is a Killed purified vaccine and contains antigens for H. influenzae type b polysaccharide.
- Purified antigen is in combined or conjugated form with the tetanus toxoid protein.
- Conjugated polysaccharide vaccine is very efficient in generating immunity against HiB type B and also generates mamory.
- This vaccine is safe with other vaccines.
- Lesser are the other side effects of the vaccine and also of lesser severity.
To whom ActHIB vaccine should not be given?
Contraindications of this vaccine are very few and very rare to occur.
Anaphylaxis at the time of previous dose is contraindication to this vaccine.
Avoid this vaccine if your patient is allergic to any of its component.
Those with progressive neurological disease should avoid vaccine.
Those who are above 6 years age.
Warnings and caution with ActHIBVaccine
If Guillain-Barré syndrome has occurred within 6 weeks of receipt of a prior vaccine containing tetanus toxoid, the decision to give this vaccine should be based on potential benefits and risks.
Syncope (fainting) can occur in association with administration of injectable vaccines, including ActHIB. Procedures should be in place to avoid falling injury and to restore cerebral perfusion following syncope.
Apnea following intramuscular vaccination occurs in some infants born prematurely. Decisions about when to administer an intramuscular vaccine, including ActHIB, to infants born prematurely should be based on consideration of the individual infant’s medical status, and the potential benefits and possible risks of vaccination.