R-vac: Live Rubella vaccine
R-Vac Vaccine is a brand of Rubella Vaccine by Serum Institute of India. This vaccine protects against Rubella. This is live attenuated vaccine. It contains live attenuated Rubella virus strain.
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How is R-vac vaccine available?
R-vac vaccine is available as lyophilized powder 10 ampoules and separate vials of sterile water for diluents 10 vials are available is a separate vial. The sterile syringe is available with sterile needle.
How is R-vac vaccine prepared?
R-vac vaccine, sterile water for injection is mixed with lyophilized powder. The needle should be attached to the syringe of sterile water. The water is pushed into the vial of lyophilized powder. The mixture is agitated gently to mix the content. The care should be taken while doing the procedure that sterilizers and disinfectant should not touch the vial. The care should be taken to avoid the needle prick while mixing the contents. The mixture is sucked buck into the syringe.
How the R-vac vaccine can be given?
R-vac vaccine can be given either by subcutaneous route. All the safety injection precautions need to be taken while giving injection. The disinfectant applied to skin should be evaporated completely before giving the injection. The disposables after use of injection should be discarded as per biomedical waste management protocols. The vaccine if expired should be discarded and not used. The expired vaccines need to be discarded as per biomedical waste management protocols.
At what age R-vac vaccine is given?
R-vac vaccine is given at age above 12 months and the next dose is given at 15 months followed by at 5 years of age in routine immunization schedule.
What if someone has missed R-vac vaccine dose?
If unvaccinated person above 12 months comes to OPD, R-vac is to be given. The missed dose should be given as early as possible. The opinion of pediatrician is to be taken before vaccination. In adults the side effects are comparatively more like fever.
How does R-vac vaccine work?
R-vac vaccine contains live attenuated viruses of measles, mumps and rubella. Live attenuated means these are live virus but they lack capacity to cause disease though they have capacity to infect. When these viruses are injected by vaccine they infect the person who got the injection. They multiply in the body of the host. The immunity of the host recognizes these viruses. The immunity develops mechanism to fight these viruses. In this process the body also develops the memory immunity. When the real infection of these diseases occur the body rapidly increases the immune response and the disease is prevented. This is active form of immunization.
What are the side effects of the R-vac vaccine?
Side effects of R-vac vaccine are usually milder when compared to the diseases it cause. Common side effects are:
· Fever may come and usually lasts for 1-3 days and it can be easily controlled by oral medications like paracetamol at home.
· Skin rash which looks like measles disease can appear in few days after vaccination. This rash is usually milder and short lasting than measles disease.
· Pain, swelling and redness at injection site. This may come after injection and may last for 1-3 days. It usually subsides by its own or by simple measures like local cold fomentation.
· Symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection like cold and running nose.
· Nervousness and crying.
· Lymphadenopathy: Uncommon.
· Conjuctivitis, bronchitis, parotid gland swelling, diarrhea and vomiting are uncommon side effects. These are usually milder and are generally manageable on OPD basis at home.
· In adults the reactions like fever reactions are common to children.
· Thrombocytopenia is rare side effects and if occurs it usually resolves by its own.
· Like all other vaccine anaphylaxis reaction may come after this vaccination though it is very rare. The facility at which vaccination is given should be ready to manage the anaphylaxis with necessary equipments and skilled personnel.
What cautions are needed with R-vac vaccine?
· The facility to management anaphylaxis should be ready while giving R-vac injection.
· The caution should be taken in those who are allergic egg proteins.
· The vaccine should not be given to those who are allergic to any of its components.
· This is live vaccine so cannot be used in pregnancy.
· The pregnancy should be avoided till after 3 months of giving this vaccine, though this vaccine is not valid indication for abortion.
· The caution should be taken in immmunocompromised patients. The vaccine is used in them if benefit outweighs the risks.
· In infants of HIV mothers this vaccine should be given as early as after 6 months of age.
· The vaccine is avoided in those with active TB disease or those in intensive phase of the TB-treatment.
· The vaccine should be given after one month to those who got measles as the natural disease does not given immunity.
· Biomedical waste management guidelines are to be followed like all other vaccinations.
· The vaccine is stored as per mentioned on packet by the manufacturer.
To whom R-vac vaccine is contraindicated?
· R-vac vaccine is contraindicated in those with stage 3 or stage 4 HIV AIDS disease.
· R-vac vaccine is contraindicated those who are severely immunocompromized.
· Those who are pregnant.
· Those who are allergic to any of its component.
· Those who got anaphylaxis at the time of R-vac vaccine in past.
Those who are allergic to egg protein.